Article. I. (The Legislative Branch)
Section. 9. (Limits on Congress)
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
- The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription – The National Archives
- United States Constitution: Texts, Commentaries, Historical Texts and Judicial Decisions – Law Library of Congress
- The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation – FDsys
- Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Govinfo.gov
- “Federalism and the Constitution: Limits on Congressional Power,” CRS Report RL30315 (31-page PDF)
- “Legislative Powers of Congress: A Brief Reference Guide,” CRS Report 97-434 (16-page PDF)
- The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription, from The National Archives
- Section 9: Limits on Congress – Wikipedia
- Section 9. Powers Denied to Congress – Findlaw
- Appropriation (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Authorization (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Prison-industrial complex
- Criminal intent, mens rea, and the burgeoning prison population
- “Legislative Powers of Congress: A Brief Reference Guide,” CRS Report 97-434 (20-page PDF)
- “Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch,” CRS Report RS22432 (8-page PDF)
- “Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview,” CRS Report RL33391 (49-page PDF)
- “Federal Habeas Corpus Relief,” CRS Report RL33259 (30-page PDF)
- “Sanctions Legislation and the Bill of Attainder Clause,” CRS In Focus IF12237 (5-page PDF)
- “Detainee Provisions in the National Defense Authorization Bills,” CRS Report R41920 (46-page PDF)
- “Weirdest Scandal Ever: Foreign Knights Invade America” – Titles of Nobility
- “Capitol Unrest, Legislative Response, and the Bill of Attainder Clause,” CRS Legal Sidebar LSB10567 (8-page PDF)
- “The Federal Taxing Power: A Primer,” CRS Report R46551 (25-page PDF)
- “The Emoluments Clauses of the U.S. Constitution,” CRS inFocus IF11086 (5-page PDF)
Constitution Line by Line: Article 1, Section 9, Clause 8- Titles of Nobility and Awards
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