The Courts Clause is one of Congress’ enumerated powers found in the Constitution of the United States, Article. I. Section. 8., clause 9:
(Clause 9 – Courts)
[The Congress shall have Power] To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
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Article I courts are those courts created by the Congress pursuant to its power under Article I of the Constitution. They include the following:
1. Territorial courts: These are federal courts located in the district of Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands.
2. U.S. Court of Military Appeals [U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces]
3. U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals
4. U.S. Court of Federal Claims
5. U.S. Tax Court.
Article I courts are also referred to as legislative courts.
Article I Courts Law & Legal Definition, USLegal.com
Structure of the Court System: Crash Course Government and Politics
Article I tribunals consist of certain federal courts and other forms of adjudicative bodies. These tribunals, as created by Congress, are of various forms, and have differing levels of independence from the executive and legislative branches. They can be Article I Courts (also called legislative courts) set up by Congress to review agency decisions, ancillary courts with judges appointed by Article III appeals court judges, or administrative agencies. Article I judges are not subject to the Article III protections.
For example, these judges do not enjoy life tenure, and Congress may reduce their salaries. The existence of Article I tribunals has been controversial, and their power has been challenged before the United States Supreme Court, which has determined that Article I tribunals may exist, but that their power must be circumscribed and, when a potential deprivation of life, liberty, property, or property interest is involved, their decisions are subject to ultimate review in an Article III court.
Article I tribunals – from Wikipedia
- The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription – The National Archives
- United States Constitution: Texts, Commentaries, Historical Texts and Judicial Decisions – Law Library of Congress
- CRS Annotated Constitution (LII)
- The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation – FDsys
- Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Govinfo.gov
- “Federalism and the Constitution: Limits on Congressional Power,” CRS Report RL30315 (31-page PDF)
- “Legislative Powers of Congress: A Brief Reference Guide,” CRS Report 97-434 (20-page PDF)
- “Congressional Control over the Supreme Court,” CRS Report R47382 (56-page PDF)
- Nomination (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Senatorial Courtesy (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS)
- Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO)
- History of the Federal Judiciary – Federal Judicial Center
- Legislative Courts – onecle
- Bankruptcy Courts
- United States Bankruptcy Courts – Wikipedia
- Article I and Article III tribunals – from Wikipedia
- United States federal courts – from Wikipedia
A free download of our Pocket Constitution is available on Scribd.
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The Founders’ Key: The Divine and Natural Connection Between the Declaration and the Constitution and What We Risk by Losing It
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Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788
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