Substitute / Substitute Amendment / Queen-of-the-Hill Rule
Substitute: A motion, amendment or entire bill introduced in place of the pending legislative business. Passage of a substitute measure kills the original measure by supplanting it. The substitute also may be amended.
Substitute Amendment: This type of amendment, representing a full-text alternative, can be offered only at the outset of the amendment process, after the first section of the measure is read. (A full-text amendment can also be offered at the end of the markup process, but that practice is rare.) An advantage of an amendment in the nature of a substitute is that a motion can be made after any debate on the amendment to cut off further debate and amendments. This motion is called the previous question.
Queen-of-the-Hill Rule / King-of-the-Hill Rule: A special rule that permits votes on a series of amendments, usually complete substitutes for a measure, but directs that the amendment receiving the greatest number of votes is the winning amendment. See “Queen-of-the-Hill Rules in the House of Representatives,” CRS Report RS20313 (7-page PDF).
Sen. Tom Coburn On His Substitute Amendment to Pay For the AGOA-CAFTA-DR-Burma Sanctions Trade Bill (pt. 2)
- Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Amendment Tree (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Markup (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- § 6.50 Committee Markup, § 6.90 Rules Committee and Special Rules, § 6.120 Committee of the Whole: Amendment Process, § 6.122 Basic House Amendment Tree, § 6.220 Senate Amendment Procedure, in Congressional Deskbook
- in Congressional Procedure
- “House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies,” CRS Report R41083 (220-page PDF)
- “Resolving Legislative Differences in the Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses,” CRS Report 98-696 (40-page PDF)
- “Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress,” CRS Report R42843 (18-page PDF)
- “Senate Committee Rules in the 115th Congress: Key Provisions,” CRS Report R44901 (36-page PDF)
- “Senate Unanimous Consent Agreements: Potential Effects on the Amendment Process,” CRS Report 98-310 (9-page PDF)
- “Constitutional Points of Order in the Senate,” CRS Report R40948 (11-page PDF)
- Congressional Operations Briefing – Capitol Hill Workshop
- Drafting Federal Legislation and Amendments
- Writing for Government and Business: Critical Thinking and Writing
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- Drafting Effective Federal Legislation and Amendments in a Nutshell, Audio Course on CD
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Legislative Drafter’s Deskbook: A Practical Guide
Citizen’s Handbook to Influencing Elected Officials: A Guide for Citizen Lobbyists and Grassroots Advocates
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