Apportionment and Redistricting Following the 2020 Census (CRS IN11360)

The census, apportionment, and congressional redistricting are interrelated processes that occur every decade. The U.S. Constitution provides that a decennial census determines the distribution of U.S. House seats across states, though the federal government today also uses census data for other purposes, such as distributing funding to states and localities. The process of dividing House … Read more

Congressional Oversight Provisions in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act (P.L. 116-136) (CRS R46315)

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act (P.L. 116-136) includes a variety of oversight provisions designed to increase the information available to Congress regarding the federal government’s implementation of the CARES Act and response to the COVID-19 pandemic more generally. Specifically, the CARES Act: establishes a Congressional Oversight Commission, establishes a Special Inspector … Read more

Constitutional Considerations of Remote Voting In Congress (CRS Legal Sidebar, LSB10447)

COVID-19 has had an impact on almost every facet of American life. Congress has not been spared. Largely because the risk of transmission of the disease is highest in concentrated groups, there have been calls to alter the internal operation of the two chambers to introduce “social distancing” into the legislative process. One high-profile suggestion—intended … Read more

The Coronavirus Relief Fund (CARES Act, Title V): Background and State and Local Allocations (CRS R46298)

Summary: The sudden decline in economic output following the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has significantly altered the fiscal outlook for state and local governments. A sizable share of economic output derives from state and local government activity. These governments are generally required to balance their operating budgets every one or two years. Early evidence … Read more

Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust Funds Ran Out?

  Should I Defer My Social Security Payout?   Social Security’s income and outlays are accounted for through two federal trust funds: the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund. Under their intermediate assumptions and under current law, the Social Security trustees project that the DI … Read more

Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations (CRS RL34722)

The crux of a presidential transition is the transfer of executive power from the incumbent to the President-elect. Yet the transition process encompasses a host of activities, beginning with pre-election planning and continuing through inauguration day. The process ensures that the federal government provides resources to presidential candidates’ transition teams, and, eventually, the President-elect’s team; … Read more

The Congressional Review Act (CRA) (CongressionalGlossary.com)

From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms   Congressional Review Act: A new idea to eliminate Obama’s agency regulations   The Congressional Review Act (CRA) is an oversight tool that Congress may use to overturn a rule issued by a federal agency, in some cases, rules issued in a previous session of … Read more

Regular Appropriations / Supplemental Appropriations / Continuing Resolutions (CongressionalGlossary.com)

From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms Regular Appropriations / Supplemental Appropriations / Continuing Resolutions There are three types of appropriations bills considered by the Congress. Regular appropriations bills provide funding to agencies for the next fiscal year, which runs from October 1 to September 30. Supplemental appropriations bills provide additional funding … Read more

Congress’s Contempt Power, CRS Report RL34097

Congress’s contempt power is the means by which Congress responds to certain acts that in its view obstruct the legislative process. Contempt may be used either to coerce compliance, to punish the contemnor, and/or to remove the obstruction. Although arguably any action that directly obstructs the effort of Congress to exercise its constitutional powers may … Read more

Recent CRS Reports, Late-October 2013

Promoting Global Internet Freedom: Policy and Technology, CRS Report R41837, October 22, 2013 (20-page PDF) Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress, CRS Report R42493, October 25, 2013 (33-page PDF) FY2014 Appropriations Lapse and the Department of Homeland Security: Impact and Legislation, CRS Report R43252, October 24, 2013 (26-page PDF) Army Corps of … Read more

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