Presidential Succession: Perspectives and Contemporary Issues for Congress (CRS R46450)

Succession to the office of President of the United States is provided for by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Title 3, Section 19 of the U.S. Code (3 U.S.C. §19). The Twenty-Fifth Amendment states in Section 1 that when the office of President of the United States becomes vacant due to “removal … Read more

Federal Election Results: Frequently Asked Questions (CRS R46565)

Several states have implemented new election administration processes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that could affect how and when ballots are counted. Even under normal circumstances, finalizing federal election results takes days or weeks after election day. Among other steps, state, territorial, and local election officials canvass votes to ensure that ballots are valid … Read more

Contingent Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Perspectives and Contemporary Analysis (CRS R40504)

The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that presidential and vice presidential candidates gain “a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed” in order to win election. With a total of 538 electors representing the 50 states and the District of Columbia, 270 electoral votes is the “magic number,” the arithmetic majority necessary to … Read more

Judge Amy Coney Barrett: Her Jurisprudence and Potential Impact on the Supreme Court (CRS R46562)

On September 26, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announced the nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit to the Supreme Court of the United States to fill the vacancy left by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg on September 18, 2020. Judge Barrett has been … Read more

Citizen’s Handbook to Influencing Elected Officials

  Citizen’s Handbook to Influencing Elected Officials Citizen Advocacy in State Legislatures and Congress – A Guide for Citizen Lobbyists and Grassroots Advocates By Bradford Fitch Practical guidance how to prepare for and meet with elected officials and staff, how to write effective letters and emails to elected officials, strategies for influencing legislators face-to-face, best … Read more

Supreme Court Vacancies That Occurred During Presidential Election Years (1789-2020) (CRS IN11514)

The death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg on September 18, 2020, created a vacancy on the Supreme Court during a presidential election year. This is the 14th such vacancy on the Court that has occurred during a presidential election year from 1789 to 2020 and that also occurred prior to the election date itself. Information … Read more

Judge Amy Coney Barrett: Selected Primary Material (CRS LSB10539)

On September 26, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announced the nomination of Judge Amy V. Coney Barrett of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (“Seventh Circuit”) to fill the vacancy on the Supreme Court caused by Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s death on September 18, 2020. This Sidebar contains reference information … Read more

Subsidizing Replacement of Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of “Cash for Clunkers” Programs (CRS R46544)

Some Members of Congress have suggested developing a rebate program either to address effects of the 2020 pandemic on the automotive industry, including the temporary closures of all U.S. vehicle manufacturing plants, or as part of a long-range effort to remove older internal combustion vehicles with high greenhouse gas emissions from the roads. Rebates were … Read more

Supreme Court Appointment and Nomination

“Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration by the Senate Judiciary Committee,” CRS Report R44236, September 22, 2020 (31-page PDF) “Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s Selection of a Nominee,” CRS Report R44235, September 28, 2020 (32-page PDF) “Confirmation of U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years: Frequently Asked Questions,” CRS Report R46533, September 18, … Read more

Facial Recognition Technology and Law Enforcement: Select Constitutional Considerations (CRS R46541)

Facial recognition technology (FRT) is a biometric technology that compares two or more images of faces to determine whether they represent the same individual. Automated FRT is increasingly used by law enforcement to help identify criminal suspects and other persons of interest. Law enforcement may use FRT and associated image databases to compare and match … Read more