The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 23 (Twenty-Third Amendment)
Amendment XXIII. (Presidential Vote for District of Columbia)
Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
- The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27, from The National Archives
- Twenty-third Amendment – CRS Annotated Constitution
- Twenty-third Amendment – Wikipedia
- Twenty-third Amendment – Findlaw
- Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Govinfo.gov
- Terms of Congress
- Election Capitol Hill Workshop
- Mid-Term Election
- “7 stages of the office seeker“
- Vice President
- President Pro Tempore
- President of the Senate
- Chapter 8.P. Presidential Succession in Congressional Procedure
- “Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections,” CRS Report R42139 (61-page PDF)
- “District of Columbia: Issues in the 108th Congress,” CRS Report RL31771 (12-page PDF)
- Electors for the District of Columbia – Heritage Guide to the Constitution
The 23rd Amendment Explained: The Constitution for Dummies Series
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