Pocket Constitution

The Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, and the Amendments to the Constitution, all in a handy pocket-sized booklet. Our Pocket Constitution is available for purchase in multiples of 25 copies with Free Shipping, and single copies.     #PocketConstitution In addition to the complete Declaration of Independence (with Preamble), U.S. Constitution, and all amendments to … Read more

Final Action by the Senate on Supreme Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years (1789-2020) (CRS IN11519)

Senate Confirmation of Supreme Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years As shown by Figure 1, 17 (81%) of 21 Supreme Court nominations that received final action by the Senate during past presidential election years were confirmed. A majority of the nominations confirmed by the Senate during presidential election years occurred in either the 18th or … Read more

Consumer Credit Reporting, Credit Bureaus, Credit Scoring, and Related Policy Issues (CRS R44125)

The consumer data industry—generally referred to as credit reporting agencies or credit bureaus—collects and subsequently provides information to firms about the behavior of consumers when they participate in various financial transactions. Firms use consumer information to screen for consumer risks. For example, lenders rely upon credit reports and scores to determine the likelihood that prospective … Read more

Supreme Court Appointment Process: Senate Debate and Confirmation Vote (CRS R44234)

The procedure for appointing a Justice to the Supreme Court is provided for in the U.S. Constitution in only a few words. The “Appointments Clause” in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2, clause 2) states that the President “shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint … Judges … Read more

Presidential Elections: Vacancies in Major-Party Candidacies and the Position of President-Elect (CRS R44648)

What would happen in 2020 if a candidate for President or Vice President were to die or leave the ticket any time between the national party conventions and the November 3 election day? What would happen if this occurred during presidential transition, either between election day and the December 14, 2020, meeting of the electoral … Read more

Presidential Succession: Perspectives and Contemporary Issues for Congress (CRS R46450)

Succession to the office of President of the United States is provided for by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Title 3, Section 19 of the U.S. Code (3 U.S.C. §19). The Twenty-Fifth Amendment states in Section 1 that when the office of President of the United States becomes vacant due to “removal … Read more

Federal Election Results: Frequently Asked Questions (CRS R46565)

Several states have implemented new election administration processes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that could affect how and when ballots are counted. Even under normal circumstances, finalizing federal election results takes days or weeks after election day. Among other steps, state, territorial, and local election officials canvass votes to ensure that ballots are valid … Read more

Contingent Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Perspectives and Contemporary Analysis (CRS R40504)

The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that presidential and vice presidential candidates gain “a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed” in order to win election. With a total of 538 electors representing the 50 states and the District of Columbia, 270 electoral votes is the “magic number,” the arithmetic majority necessary to … Read more

Judge Amy Coney Barrett: Her Jurisprudence and Potential Impact on the Supreme Court (CRS R46562)

On September 26, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announced the nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit to the Supreme Court of the United States to fill the vacancy left by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg on September 18, 2020. Judge Barrett has been … Read more

Judge Amy Coney Barrett: Selected Primary Material (CRS LSB10539)

On September 26, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announced the nomination of Judge Amy V. Coney Barrett of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (“Seventh Circuit”) to fill the vacancy on the Supreme Court caused by Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s death on September 18, 2020. This Sidebar contains reference information … Read more