From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms
Advice and Consent / Plum Book
photo credit: mikecogh
Advice and Consent: Under the Constitution, Article. II. Section. 2., presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts (including ambassadors, Cabinet secretaries, federal judges, and military officers) take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
[The President] shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments
Every four years, just after the presidential election, the United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions, commonly known as the Plum Book, is published, alternately, by the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (2008, 2016) and the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (2012, 2020). The Plum Book is used to identify presidentially appointed positions within the federal government.
Pro Forma Sessions and the Power of Advice and Consent
- U.S. Constitution, Article. II. Section. 2.
- Chapter 8.B. Nominations; Chapter 8.D. Treaties; Chapter 8.Q. The Courts in Congressional Procedure
- Committee Print (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Treaties (CongressionalGlossary.com)
- Plum Book – OPM
- The Plum Book (United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions ) is available on Govinfo.gov
- The Plum Book is also available on FDSys, under “Collections“, then scroll down to “United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions (Plum Book)”
- Advice and consent – Wikipedia
- United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions – Wikipedia
- List of positions filled by presidential appointment with Senate confirmation – Wikipedia
- List of United States treaties – Wikipedia
- “Senate Confirmation Process: A Brief Overview,” CRS Report RS20986 (8-page PDF)
- Appointment and Confirmation of Executive Branch Leadership: An Overview, CRS Report R44083 (20-page PDF)
- “The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform,” CRS Report R41801 (30-page PDF)
- “Senate Consideration of Presidential Nominations: Committee and Floor Procedure,” CRS Report RL31980 (20-page PDF)
- “Statutory Qualifications for Executive Branch Positions,” CRS Report RL33886 (40-page PDF)
- “Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 110th Congress,” CRS Report R41776 (52-page PDF)
- “Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 110th Congress,” CRS Report R41463 (64-page PDF)
- “Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 114th Congress,” CRS Report R45028 (47-page PDF)
- “Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 114th Congress,” CRS Report R45029 (50-page PDF)
- “Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 114th Congress,” CRS Report R45004 (45-page PDF)
- “NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent,” CRS Report RL31915 (15-page PDF)
- “Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate,” CRS Report RL31989 (70-page PDF)
- “The Appropriate Number of Advice and Consent Positions,” CRS Report RL32212 (40-page PDF)
- “Filling Advice and Consent Positions at the Outset of a New Administration,” CRS Report R40119 (67-page PDF)
- “Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations,” CRS Report RL34722 (56-page PDF)
- “The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment, Accountability, and Congressional Oversight,” CRS Report R40856 (69-page PDF)
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