State and Federal Authority to Mandate COVID-19 Vaccination (CRS Report R46745)

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines licensed or authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are a critical tool to reduce the spread and severity of COVID-19. FDA initially authorized the vaccines, between December 2020 and February 2021, under Section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), a regulatory … Read more

James Madison Bobblehead

  James Madison Bobblehead James Madison Bobble Head 7 inches tall Limited edition of 1000 Individually numbered Full color collector’s edition box included Styrofoam packaging inside box Montpelier on base in front Each James Madison Bobblehead includes 5 copies of our Pocket Constitution James Madison, Father of the Constitution (1751-1836) $27.95 Order online. James Madison … Read more

James Madison Bobblehead

  James Madison Bobblehead James Madison Bobble Head 7 inches tall Limited edition of 1000 Individually numbered Full color collector’s edition box included Styrofoam packaging inside box Montpelier on base in front Each James Madison Bobblehead includes 5 copies of our Pocket Constitution James Madison, Father of the Constitution (1751-1836) $27.95 Order online. James Madison … Read more

Facial Recognition Technology and Law Enforcement: Select Constitutional Considerations (CRS R46541)

Facial recognition technology (FRT) is a biometric technology that compares two or more images of faces to determine whether they represent the same individual. Automated FRT is increasingly used by law enforcement to help identify criminal suspects and other persons of interest. Law enforcement may use FRT and associated image databases to compare and match … Read more

Bill of Rights Day – December 15

The Bill of Rights was ratified on December 15, 1791, 222 years ago today, coming into force on ratification by Virginia. The Bill of Rights includes a Preamble and Amendments 1 – 10 George Mason is known, together with James Madison, as the “Father of the Bill of Rights.” However, George Mason would be better … Read more

Government by consent of the governed: West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624

There are village tyrants, as well as village Hampdens, but none who acts under color of law is beyond reach of the Constitution. . . . The very purpose of a Bill of Rights was to withdraw certain subjects from the vicissitudes of political controversy, to place them beyond the reach of majorities and officials, … Read more

George Mason, “Grandfather of the Bill of Rights” (1725-1792)

George Mason is known, together with James Madison, as the “Father of the Bill of Rights.” However, George Mason would be better named the “Grandfather of the Bill of Rights” since the basis for the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution was the Virginia Declaration of Rights. That all men are born equally free … Read more

“Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis”

As part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), P.L. 111-148, as amended, Congress enacted a “minimum coverage provision,” which compels certain individuals to have a minimum level of health insurance (i.e., an “individual mandate”). Individuals who fail to do so may be subject to a monetary penalty, administered through the tax code. … Read more