Final Action by the Senate on Supreme Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years (1789-2020) (CRS IN11519)

Senate Confirmation of Supreme Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years As shown by Figure 1, 17 (81%) of 21 Supreme Court nominations that received final action by the Senate during past presidential election years were confirmed. A majority of the nominations confirmed by the Senate during presidential election years occurred in either the 18th or … Read more

Consumer Credit Reporting, Credit Bureaus, Credit Scoring, and Related Policy Issues (CRS R44125)

The consumer data industry—generally referred to as credit reporting agencies or credit bureaus—collects and subsequently provides information to firms about the behavior of consumers when they participate in various financial transactions. Firms use consumer information to screen for consumer risks. For example, lenders rely upon credit reports and scores to determine the likelihood that prospective … Read more

Supreme Court Appointment Process: Senate Debate and Confirmation Vote (CRS R44234)

The procedure for appointing a Justice to the Supreme Court is provided for in the U.S. Constitution in only a few words. The “Appointments Clause” in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2, clause 2) states that the President “shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint … Judges … Read more

Presidential Succession: Perspectives and Contemporary Issues for Congress (CRS R46450)

Succession to the office of President of the United States is provided for by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Title 3, Section 19 of the U.S. Code (3 U.S.C. §19). The Twenty-Fifth Amendment states in Section 1 that when the office of President of the United States becomes vacant due to “removal … Read more

Federal Election Results: Frequently Asked Questions (CRS R46565)

Several states have implemented new election administration processes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that could affect how and when ballots are counted. Even under normal circumstances, finalizing federal election results takes days or weeks after election day. Among other steps, state, territorial, and local election officials canvass votes to ensure that ballots are valid … Read more

Supreme Court Vacancies That Occurred During Presidential Election Years (1789-2020) (CRS IN11514)

The death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg on September 18, 2020, created a vacancy on the Supreme Court during a presidential election year. This is the 14th such vacancy on the Court that has occurred during a presidential election year from 1789 to 2020 and that also occurred prior to the election date itself. Information … Read more

Subsidizing Replacement of Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of “Cash for Clunkers” Programs (CRS R46544)

Some Members of Congress have suggested developing a rebate program either to address effects of the 2020 pandemic on the automotive industry, including the temporary closures of all U.S. vehicle manufacturing plants, or as part of a long-range effort to remove older internal combustion vehicles with high greenhouse gas emissions from the roads. Rebates were … Read more

Supreme Court Appointment and Nomination

“Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration by the Senate Judiciary Committee,” CRS Report R44236, September 22, 2020 (31-page PDF) “Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s Selection of a Nominee,” CRS Report R44235, September 28, 2020 (32-page PDF) “Confirmation of U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During Presidential Election Years: Frequently Asked Questions,” CRS Report R46533, September 18, … Read more

Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Former Members of Congress (CRS R41121)

After Members of the House or Senate leave office, they are afforded certain courtesies and privileges. Some are derived from law and chamber rules, but others are courtesies that have been extended as a matter of custom. Some of these privileges and courtesies include the following: – access to the floor of the chamber in … Read more

Understanding Federal Legislation: A Section-by-Section Guide to Key Legal Considerations (CRS R46484)

Federal bills are increasingly complex, making them difficult to understand for the average reader and the seasoned practitioner alike. What a congressional drafter understands to be the import of a given provision could later be discussed and interpreted in committee or on the floor of the House or the Senate. If the bill is enacted, … Read more