Overview of Public and Private School Choice Options (CRS IF10713)

School choice generally refers to the opportunity for parents to select an elementary or secondary school for their child that differs from the assigned school that the child would otherwise attend based on where the family lives. School choice is often divided into two major categories—public school choice and private school choice. Both types of … Read more

State and Federal Authority to Mandate COVID-19 Vaccination (CRS Report R46745)

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines licensed or authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are a critical tool to reduce the spread and severity of COVID-19. FDA initially authorized the vaccines, between December 2020 and February 2021, under Section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), a regulatory … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – December 2021

“Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations,” CRS Report RL30959, December 28, 2021 (55-page PDF) “The Debt Limit in 2021,” CRS Insight IN11702, December 27, 2021 (7-page PDF) “Breaking Down the U.S. Inflation Rate,” CRS Insight IN11832, December 21, 2021 (7-page PDF) “Executive Order 14042 Requirements for COVID-19 Vaccination of Federal Contractors,” … Read more

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Confucius Institutes in the United States: Selected Issues – CRS IF11180

The People’s Republic of China (PRC)’s Confucius Institutes, which offer Chinese language instruction in universities around the world, have been the subject of controversy since appearing on U.S. campuses in 2005, particularly for their perceived effects on academic freedom and lack of transparency. They have attracted further attention in recent years as the broader U.S.-China … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – November 2021

“Lobbying Registration and Disclosure: The Role of the Clerk of the House and the Secretary of the Senate,” CRS Report RL34377, November 29, 2021 (17-page PDF) “The Debt Limit in 2021,” CRS Insight IN11702, November 24, 2021 (7-page PDF) “Cybersecurity: Selected Cyberattacks, 2012-2021,” CRS Report R46974, November 22, 2021 (28-page PDF) “Apportionment and Redistricting Process … Read more

Foreign Farmland Ownership in the United States – CRS In Focus IF11977

Legislation introduced in the 117th Congress seeks to restrict foreign investment and ownership of U.S. agricultural land. In 2019, foreign persons and entities held an interest in 2.7% of U.S. privately owned agricultural land—covering crop, grazing, and forest land—according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Other related legislation seeks to limit the eligibility of … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – October 2021

“COVID-19 Variants: Vaccines, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics,” CRS In Focus IF11789, October 29, 2021 (5-page PDF) “Evergrande Group and China’s Debt Challenges,” CRS In Focus IF11953, October 21, 2021 (5-page PDF) “Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues,” CRS Report R42853, October 20, 2021 (42-page PDF) “Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process,” CRS Report RL31675, October 20, 2021 … Read more

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Recent CRS Reports – September 2021

“The Debt Limit in 2021,” CRS Insight IN11702, September 30, 2021 (7-page PDF) “Apportionment and Redistricting Following the 2020 Census,” CRS insight IN11360, September 29, 2021 (6-page PDF) “China and Taiwan Both Seek to Join the CPTPP,” CRS Insight IN11760, September 24, 2021 (5-page PDF) “Social Security: The Trust Funds,” CRS Report RL33028, September 21, … Read more

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The Debt Limit in 2021 (CRS IN11702)

Debt limit episodes—which can be defined as starting when the statutory limit on federal debt restricts some of the U.S. Treasury’s normal debt operations and ending when new legislation to modify the limit is enacted—have been a recurrent federal fiscal feature in the past two decades. Since 2002, the debt limit has been modified 18 … Read more