State and Federal Authority to Mandate COVID-19 Vaccination (CRS Report R46745)

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines licensed or authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are a critical tool to reduce the spread and severity of COVID-19. FDA initially authorized the vaccines, between December 2020 and February 2021, under Section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), a regulatory … Read more

Congressional Directory 2022

Congressional Directory 2022

  Congressional Directory 2022 117th Congress, 2nd Session This comprehensive directory lists members of the US Senate and House of Representatives, complete with color photos and a fold-out map of Capitol Hill. The 2022 Congressional Directory is wire-spiral bound for flat-fold reference and durability.   2022 Congressional Directory Member photos in full color Wire-spiral binding … Read more

Foreign Farmland Ownership in the United States – CRS In Focus IF11977

Legislation introduced in the 117th Congress seeks to restrict foreign investment and ownership of U.S. agricultural land. In 2019, foreign persons and entities held an interest in 2.7% of U.S. privately owned agricultural land—covering crop, grazing, and forest land—according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Other related legislation seeks to limit the eligibility of … Read more

The Debt Limit in 2021 (CRS IN11702)

Debt limit episodes—which can be defined as starting when the statutory limit on federal debt restricts some of the U.S. Treasury’s normal debt operations and ending when new legislation to modify the limit is enacted—have been a recurrent federal fiscal feature in the past two decades. Since 2002, the debt limit has been modified 18 … Read more

Congressional Directory 2021

  Congressional Directory 2021 117th Congress, 1st Session This comprehensive directory lists members of the US Senate and House of Representatives, complete with color photos and a fold-out map of Capitol Hill. The 2021 Congressional Directory is wire-spiral bound for flat-fold reference and durability.   2021 Congressional Directory Member photos in full color Wire-spiral binding … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – June 2021

“Independence Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet,” CRS Report R44076, June 25, 2021 (7-page PDF) “Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs,” CRS Report R40913, June 24, 2021 (73-page PDF) “The Budget Resolution and the Senate’s Automatic Discharge Process,” CRS Insight IN11693, June 23, 2021 (5-page PDF) “Membership of the 117th Congress: … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – May 2021

“House Rules Changes Affecting Committee Procedure in the 117th Congress (2021-2022),” CRS Report R46804, May 28, 2021 (17-page PDF) “Redistricting Commissions for Congressional Districts,” CRS Insight IN11053, May 28, 2021 (6-page PDF) “The Vacancies Act: A Legal Overview,” CRS Report R44997, May 28, 2021 (43-page PDF) “Federal Agricultural Recovery Resources for Drought-Related Losses,” CRS Insight … Read more

Addressing Lead in Drinking Water: The Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) (CRS R46794)

Lead’s adverse health effects—especially for children, even at low levels of exposure—have driven continuing efforts to reduce lead exposure through drinking water. Primarily, lead enters drinking water after leaving the treatment plant, when lead may leach into water from plumbing materials or pipes. Accordingly, controlling corrosion of plumbing and pipes has been the principal method … Read more

Congressional Directory 2021

  Congressional Directory 2021 117th Congress, 1st Session This comprehensive directory lists members of the US Senate and House of Representatives, complete with color photos and a fold-out map of Capitol Hill. The 2021 Congressional Directory is wire-spiral bound for flat-fold reference and durability.   2021 Congressional Directory Member photos in full color Wire-spiral binding … Read more