Abraham Lincoln (1809 – 1865)

Abraham Lincoln, by G.P.A. Healy, 1887 – from the White House See also James Madison, Father of the Constitution (1751-1836).     Abraham Lincoln became the United States’ 16th President in 1861, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy in 1863. The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Lincoln had … Read more

Recent CRS Reports


Budget Deficit / Budget Surplus (CongressionalGlossary.com)

From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms Budget Deficit / Budget Surplus   Lesson 1 National Debt & Budget Deficit Explained   The relationship between spending and revenues is reflected in the surplus or deficit figure. A surplus is an excess of revenues over outlays, while a deficit is an excess of … Read more

Agency / Department (CongressionalGlossary.com)

From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms Agency photo credit: independentman Agency: No one definition of this term has general, governmentwide applicability. “Agency” and related terms, like “executive agency” or “federal agency,” are defined in different ways in different laws and regulations. For example, the provisions of the Budget and Accounting Act … Read more

Earmarking / Earmarks / Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (CongressionalGlossary.com)

From the Congressional Glossary – Including Legislative and Budget Terms Earmarking / Earmarks / Miscellaneous Tariff Bills photo credit: Beau B Earmarking: Either of the following: (1) Dedicating collections by law for a specific purpose or program. Earmarked collections include trust fund receipts, special fund receipts, intragovernmental receipts, and offsetting collections credited to appropriation accounts. … Read more

The Militia Clauses – Article I Section 8, Clauses 15 and 16 of the Constitution

The United States Constitution The Militia Clauses are among Congress’ enumerated powers found in the Constitution of the United States, Article. I. Section. 8., clauses 15 and 16: (Clause 15 – The Militia) [The Congress shall have Power] To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and … Read more

War Power and Military Establishment Clauses – Article I Section 8, Clauses 11, 12, 13 and 14 of the Constitution

The United States Constitution The War and Military Establishment Clauses are among Congress’ enumerated powers found in the Constitution of the United States, Article. I. Section. 8., clauses 11, 12, 13, and 14:     Obama’s Unprecedented War Powers Claims     (Clause 11 – War power) [The Congress shall have Power] To declare War, … Read more

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 13 (Thirteenth Amendment – Abolition of Slavery)

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 13 (13th Amendment) Amendment XIII. (Abolition of Slavery) Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865. Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime … Read more

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 4 (Fourth Amendment – Search and Seizure)

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 4 (Amendments 1-10 are known as the Bill Of Rights) (4th Amendment) Amendment IV. (Search and Seizure) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon … Read more