Recent CRS Reports – March 2021

The Economic Effects of Financing a Large and Permanent Increase in Government Spending, Congressional Budget Office, CBO Working Paper 57201, March 2021 (42-page PDF) “Recommendation for New U.S. Circuit and District Court Judgeships by the Judicial Conference of the United States (117th Congress),” CRS Insight IN11639, March 26, 2021 (6-page PDF) “District of Columbia Voting … Read more

Federal Deficits, Growing Debt, and the Economy in the Wake of COVID-19 (CRS R46729)

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a swift and deep economic downturn from which the country has yet to fully recover. In response to COVID-19, the federal government enacted expansionary fiscal policy to provide relief and stimulus to the economy. Several bills were enacted in FY2020, including the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security … Read more

Asylum Processing at the Border: Legal Basics (CRS LSB10582)

Recent statistics and reports from the southern border show a sharp increase in the arrival of non-U.S. nationals (called “aliens” under governing law) who lack visas or other valid entry documents. (This Sidebar generally refers to such aliens encountered at the cusp of entry into the United States as “undocumented migrants” to distinguish them from … Read more

Recent CRS Reports – February 2021

Considering Legislation on the House Floor: Common Practices in Brief, CRS Report R43424, February 26, 2021 (13-page PDF) “Legislative Branch: FY2021 Appropriations,” CRS Report R46469, February 26, 2021 (40-page PDF) “Availability of Legislative Measures in the House of Representatives (The “72-Hour Rule”),” CRS Report RS22015, February 25, 2021 (12-page PDF) “U.S. Capitol Attack and Law … Read more

Overview of Health Insurance Exchanges (CRS R44065)

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) required health insurance exchanges to be established in every state. Exchanges are virtual marketplaces in which consumers and small business owners and employees can shop for and purchase private health insurance coverage and, where applicable, be connected to public health insurance programs (e.g., … Read more

“Agency Rescissions of Legislative Rules,” CRS Report R46673

Federal administrative agencies carry out their statutorily prescribed responsibilities in many ways. Perhaps most significantly, agencies may, pursuant to congressionally delegated authority, promulgate rules with the force of law, commonly known as “regulations,” “substantive rules,” or “legislative rules.” The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) establishes the procedural framework with which agencies generally must comply when issuing … Read more

James Madison Bobblehead

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How America Governs: Essentials of U.S. Governance – For Foreign Diplomats, Embassy Staff, and Interested Citizens

A Capitol Learning Audio CourseTM     For Interested Citizens and Foreign Diplomats and Embassy Staff Three Courses As a foreign diplomat or embassy staff member based in the United States (or as an interested citizen) you need a good understanding of the U.S. government to work effectively. This three-part series of courses introduces you … Read more

Consumer Credit Reporting, Credit Bureaus, Credit Scoring, and Related Policy Issues (CRS R44125)

The consumer data industry—generally referred to as credit reporting agencies or credit bureaus—collects and subsequently provides information to firms about the behavior of consumers when they participate in various financial transactions. Firms use consumer information to screen for consumer risks. For example, lenders rely upon credit reports and scores to determine the likelihood that prospective … Read more

Presidential Elections: Vacancies in Major-Party Candidacies and the Position of President-Elect (CRS R44648)

What would happen in 2020 if a candidate for President or Vice President were to die or leave the ticket any time between the national party conventions and the November 3 election day? What would happen if this occurred during presidential transition, either between election day and the December 14, 2020, meeting of the electoral … Read more